In General order 11 of 1862, supposedly Grant ordered the expulsion of all Jews from his area of operations. He was based out of Memphis. The premise was that Jews controlled the black market of cotton being smuggled north on the Mississippi. I thought that the black market was run by the Union Army. I read general order 11 and it was very confusing but it never mentioned Jews. So why is it interpreted as anti-semetic? Don't assume I know a lot about general order 11 but as I understand it Grant later claimed that the order was written by a subordinate and he didn't read it thoroughly before he signed it. Does this let him off the hook? How many Jews were in Tennessee, Arkansas and Mississippi? The Big Muddy played such an important role in the Civil War and the smuggling really interests me. If anyone could recommend a book that would be nice.